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<p><i><span style="font-size: x-large">openfree </span></i><span style="font-size: x-large">ChagaMushroom.org</span></p>
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<p>&nbsp;</p>
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<p><span style="color: #000000"><b>Chaga</b>, (<i>Inonotus obliquus</i>), also known as cinder conk, is a fungus in <i>Hymenochaetaceae</i> family. It is a fungus parasitic on Birch and other trees. The sterile conk is irregularly formed and has the appearance of burnt charcoal. The fertile fruitbody can be found very rarely as a resupinate (crustose) fungus on or near the clinker, usually appearing after the host tree is completely dead. <i>I. obliquus</i> grows in birch forests of Russia, Korea, Eastern Europe, Northern areas of the United States, in the North Carolina mountains and in Canada. The Chaga mushroom is sold as a medicinal mushroom in the health supplement industry. [[Image:Chaga.jpg|thumb]]<br />
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</span></p>
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<p>&nbsp;</p>
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<p><b><span style="font-size: medium"><span style="color: #000000">Classification of Chaga Mushroom</span></span></b></p>
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<p><span style="color: #000000">
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<table border="1" width="100%">
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    <tbody>
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        <tr>
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            <td class="style3" width="41%"><span class="style3">Kingdom</span></td>
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            <td class="style3" width="59%">Eukaryota</td>
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        </tr>
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        <tr>
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            <td class="style3">Subkingdom</td>
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            <td class="style3">Fungii</td>
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        </tr>
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        <tr>
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            <td class="style3">Division</td>
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            <td class="style3">Basidiomycota</td>
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        </tr>
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        <tr>
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            <td class="style3">Class</td>
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            <td class="style3">Hymenomycetes</td>
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        </tr>
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        <tr>
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            <td class="style3">Subclass</td>
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            <td class="style3">Homobasidiomycetes</td>
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        </tr>
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        <tr>
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            <td class="style3">Order</td>
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            <td class="style3">Hymenochaetales</td>
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        </tr>
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        <tr>
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            <td class="style3">Family</td>
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            <td class="style3">Hymenochaetaceae</td>
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        </tr>
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        <tr>
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            <td class="style3">Genus</td>
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            <td class="style3">[[Inonotus]]</td>
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        </tr>
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        <tr>
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            <td class="style3">Species</td>
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            <td class="style3">Inonotus obliquus</td>
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        </tr>
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    </tbody>
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</table>
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</span></p>
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<h2><span style="color: #000000"><span id="Medicinal_use" class="mw-headline">Medicinal use</span></span></h2>
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<p><span style="color: #000000">Since the 16th century, there are records of chaga mushroom being used in folk medicine and the botanical medicine of the Eastern European countries as a remedy for cancer, gastritis, ulcers, and tuberculosis of the bones.<sup style="white-space: nowrap" class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from December 2008"><font size="2">[<i>citation needed</i>]</font></sup> In 1958, scientific studies in Finland and Russia found Chaga provided an epochal effect in breast cancer, liver cancer, uterine cancer, and gastric cancer, as well as in hypertension and diabetes.<sup style="white-space: nowrap" class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from December 2008"><font size="2">[<i>citation needed</i>]</font></sup> Herbalist David Winston maintains that it is the strongest anti-cancer medicinal mushroom.<sup id="cite_ref-oneearthherbs.squarespace.com_0-0" class="reference"><font size="2">[1]</font></sup> Russian Literature Nobel Prize laureate Alexandr Solzhenitsyn wrote two pages on the medicinal use and value of chaga in his famous book on his life in the Gulag &quot;One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich&quot;.</span></p>
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<p><span style="color: #000000">The antimutagenic action of the molecules found in the white part of birch bark where chaga feeds inhibits free-radical oxidation and also induces the production of interferons, which helps induce DNA repair.<sup style="white-space: nowrap" class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from December 2008"><font size="2">[<i>citation needed</i>]</font></sup> The substances, contained in white part of birch bark contribute to the decrease of hypoxia and to increase of the stability of organism to the oxygen deficiency, being antihypoxant correcting the metabolism of cells.<sup style="white-space: nowrap" class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from December 2008"><font size="2">[<i>citation needed</i>]</font></sup> The anti-cancer properties of betulin or betulinic acid, a chemical isolated from birch trees, is now being studied for use as a chemotherapeutic agent. Chaga contains large amounts of betulinic acid in a form that can be ingested orally, and it also contains the full spectrum of immune-stimulating phytochemicals found in other medicinal mushrooms such as maitake mushroom and shiitake mushroom.<sup style="white-space: nowrap" class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from December 2008"><font size="2">[<i>citation needed</i>]</font></sup></span></p>
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<h2><span style="color: #000000"><span id="Preparation" class="mw-headline">Preparation</span></span></h2>
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<p><span style="color: #000000">Chaga is usually grated into a fine powder and used to brew a beverage resembling coffee. [[Image:Chaga image 1.jpg]]</span></p>
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<h2><span style="color: #000000"><span id="Research" class="mw-headline">Research</span></span></h2>
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<p><span style="color: #000000">In 1998 there was a study in Poland that demonstrated Chaga's inhibiting effects on tumor growth.<sup id="cite_ref-pmid9595828_1-0" class="reference"><font size="2">[2]</font></sup> Noda and colleagues found that betulin seems to work highly selectively on tumor cells because the interior pH of tumor tissues is generally lower than that of normal tissues, and betulinic acid is only active at those lower levels. Fulda et al. found in 1997 that once inside the cells, betulinic acid induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the tumors.<sup style="white-space: nowrap" class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from December 2008"><font size="2">[<i>citation needed</i>]</font></sup> In 2005, <i>I. obliquus</i> was evaluated for its potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in human lymphocytes. The study found that the polyphenolic extract protected these cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.<sup id="cite_ref-pmid15588653_2-0" class="reference"><font size="2">[3]</font></sup> Another study that year found the endo-polysaccharide of Chaga produced indirect anti-cancer effects via immuno-stimulation. The mycelial endo-polysaccharide of <i>I. obliquus</i> was identified as a candidate for use as an immune response modifier and indicate that the anti-cancer effect of endo-polysaccharide is not directly tumorcidal but rather is immuno-stimulating.<sup id="cite_ref-pmid15970296_3-0" class="reference"><font size="2">[4]</font></sup><sup id="cite_ref-pmid16458328_4-0" class="reference"><font size="2">[5]</font></sup> It has also have anti-inflammatory properties.<sup id="cite_ref-pmid15905055_5-0" class="reference"><font size="2">[6]</font></sup> Saitoh Akiko published on the antimutagenic effects of Chaga in 1996, and Mizuno et al. published on the anti tumor and hypoglycemic activities of the polysaccharides from the sclerotia and mycelia of Chaga.<sup id="cite_ref-mizuno_6-0" class="reference"><font size="2">[7]</font></sup> Due to the hypoglycemic activity of polysaccarides caution may be taken by those with hypoglycemia.</span></p>
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<p><span style="color: #000000">[[Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells]]. </span></p>
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<p><span style="color: #000000">[[A Korean group from Gangwon university reported a component of Chaga had antimutagenic and antioxidant acivity]] in 2008.</span></p>
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<p><span style="color: #000000">[[Chaga showed G0 and G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma cells]] reported by Korean groups in January 2008.</span></p>
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<p>&nbsp;</p>
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<p>&nbsp;</p>
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<p>&nbsp;</p>
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<h2><span style="color: #000000"><span id="See_also" class="mw-headline">See also</span></span></h2>
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<ul>
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    <li><span style="color: #000000">Medicinal mushrooms</span></li>
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    <li><span style="color: #000000">Adaptogen</span></li>
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    <li><span style="color: #000000">Herbal medicine</span></li>
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</ul>
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<h2><span style="color: #000000"><span id="References" class="mw-headline">References</span></span></h2>
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<div class="references-small">
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<ol class="references">
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    <li id="cite_note-oneearthherbs.squarespace.com-0"><span style="color: #000000"><b>^</b> [1] Tillotsen, Alan. Chaga Mushrooms (Inonotus obliquus)</span></li>
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    <li id="cite_note-pmid9595828-1"><span style="color: #000000"><b>^</b> <span class="citation Journal">Rzymowska J (January 1998). &quot;The effect of aqueous extracts from <i>Inonotus obliquus</i> on the mitotic index and enzyme activities&quot;. <i>Boll Chim Farm</i> <b>137</b> (1): 13&ndash;5. PMID&nbsp;9595828.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=The+effect+of+aqueous+extracts+from+%27%27Inonotus+obliquus%27%27+on+the+mitotic+index+and+enzyme+activities&amp;rft.jtitle=Boll+Chim+Farm&amp;rft.aulast=Rzymowska+J&amp;rft.au=Rzymowska+J&amp;rft.date=January+1998&amp;rft.volume=137&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft.pages=13%E2%80%935&amp;rft_id=info:pmid/9595828&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Chaga_mushroom"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
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    <li id="cite_note-pmid15588653-2"><span style="color: #000000"><b>^</b> <span class="citation Journal">Cui Y, Kim DS, Park KC (January 2005). &quot;Antioxidant effect of <i>Inonotus obliquus</i>&quot;. <i>J Ethnopharmacol</i> <b>96</b> (1-2): 79&ndash;85. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.08.037. PMID&nbsp;15588653.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Antioxidant+effect+of+%27%27Inonotus+obliquus%27%27&amp;rft.jtitle=J+Ethnopharmacol&amp;rft.aulast=Cui+Y%2C+Kim+DS%2C+Park+KC&amp;rft.au=Cui+Y%2C+Kim+DS%2C+Park+KC&amp;rft.date=January+2005&amp;rft.volume=96&amp;rft.issue=1-2&amp;rft.pages=79%E2%80%9385&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1016%2Fj.jep.2004.08.037&amp;rft_id=info:pmid/15588653&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Chaga_mushroom"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
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    <li id="cite_note-pmid15970296-3"><span style="color: #000000"><b>^</b> <span class="citation Journal">Kim YO, Han SB, Lee HW, Ahn HJ, Yoon YD, Jung JK, Kim HM, Shin CS (September 2005). &quot;Immuno-stimulating effect of the endo-polysaccharide produced by submerged culture of <i>Inonotus obliquus</i>&quot;. <i>Life Sci.</i> <b>77</b> (19): 2438&ndash;56. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.02.023. PMID&nbsp;15970296.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Immuno-stimulating+effect+of+the+endo-polysaccharide+produced+by+submerged+culture+of+%27%27Inonotus+obliquus%27%27&amp;rft.jtitle=Life+Sci.&amp;rft.aulast=Kim+YO%2C+Han+SB%2C+Lee+HW%2C+Ahn+HJ%2C+Yoon+YD%2C+Jung+JK%2C+Kim+HM%2C+Shin+CS&amp;rft.au=Kim+YO%2C+Han+SB%2C+Lee+HW%2C+Ahn+HJ%2C+Yoon+YD%2C+Jung+JK%2C+Kim+HM%2C+Shin+CS&amp;rft.date=September+2005&amp;rft.volume=77&amp;rft.issue=19&amp;rft.pages=2438%E2%80%9356&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1016%2Fj.lfs.2005.02.023&amp;rft_id=info:pmid/15970296&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Chaga_mushroom"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
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    <li id="cite_note-pmid16458328-4"><span style="color: #000000"><b>^</b> <span class="citation Journal">Kim YO, Park HW, Kim JH, Lee JY, Moon SH, Shin CS (May 2006). &quot;Anti-cancer effect and structural characterization of endo-polysaccharide from cultivated mycelia of Inonotus obliquus&quot;. <i>Life Sci.</i> <b>79</b> (1): 72&ndash;80. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.12.047. PMID&nbsp;16458328.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Anti-cancer+effect+and+structural+characterization+of+endo-polysaccharide+from+cultivated+mycelia+of+Inonotus+obliquus&amp;rft.jtitle=Life+Sci.&amp;rft.aulast=Kim+YO%2C+Park+HW%2C+Kim+JH%2C+Lee+JY%2C+Moon+SH%2C+Shin+CS&amp;rft.au=Kim+YO%2C+Park+HW%2C+Kim+JH%2C+Lee+JY%2C+Moon+SH%2C+Shin+CS&amp;rft.date=May+2006&amp;rft.volume=79&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft.pages=72%E2%80%9380&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1016%2Fj.lfs.2005.12.047&amp;rft_id=info:pmid/16458328&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Chaga_mushroom"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
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    <li id="cite_note-pmid15905055-5"><span style="color: #000000"><b>^</b> <span class="citation Journal">Park YM, Won JH, Kim YH, Choi JW, Park HJ, Lee KT (October 2005). &quot;In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract of <i>Inonotus obliquus</i>&quot;. <i>J Ethnopharmacol</i> <b>101</b> (1-3): 120&ndash;8. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.04.003. PMID&nbsp;15905055.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=In+vivo+and+in+vitro+anti-inflammatory+and+anti-nociceptive+effects+of+the+methanol+extract+of+%27%27Inonotus+obliquus%27%27&amp;rft.jtitle=J+Ethnopharmacol&amp;rft.aulast=Park+YM%2C+Won+JH%2C+Kim+YH%2C+Choi+JW%2C+Park+HJ%2C+Lee+KT&amp;rft.au=Park+YM%2C+Won+JH%2C+Kim+YH%2C+Choi+JW%2C+Park+HJ%2C+Lee+KT&amp;rft.date=October+2005&amp;rft.volume=101&amp;rft.issue=1-3&amp;rft.pages=120%E2%80%938&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1016%2Fj.jep.2005.04.003&amp;rft_id=info:pmid/15905055&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Chaga_mushroom"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
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    <li id="cite_note-mizuno-6"><span style="color: #000000"><b>^</b> <span class="citation Journal">Mizuno T. (1999). &quot;Antitumor and hypoglycemic activities of polysaccharides from the sclerotia and mycelia of Inonotus obliquus&quot;. <i>International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms</i> <b>1</b> (1): 301&ndash;316.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Antitumor+and+hypoglycemic+activities+of+polysaccharides+from+the+sclerotia+and+mycelia+of+Inonotus+obliquus&amp;rft.jtitle=International+Journal+of+Medicinal+Mushrooms&amp;rft.aulast=Mizuno+T.&amp;rft.au=Mizuno+T.&amp;rft.date=1999&amp;rft.volume=1&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft.pages=301%E2%80%93316&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Chaga_mushroom"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
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</ol>
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</div>
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<h2><span id="External_links" class="mw-headline">External links</span></h2>
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<ul>
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    <li><a class="external text" rel="nofollow" href="http://mushroom-collecting.com/mushroomchaga.html"><font color="#3366bb">Mushroom-Collecting.com - Chaga</font></a></li>
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</ul>
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<p>&nbsp;</p>
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<p>&nbsp;</p>
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<p>What is [[ORAC]]?<br />
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ORAC stands for &quot;Oxygen Radical Absorbent Capacity&quot;. This is a scale that measures the amount of free oxygen radicals in your body that a food or supplement can absorb. Free oxygen radicals are formed in our body from normal daily living, electricity, pollution, sun exposure and various other unavoidables. These free radicals bounce around our body beating up on our cell structure and organs, making us more susceptible to diseases. Cigarette smoke is full of free radicals. Ever notice how much older smokers look?<br />
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Researchers have also discovered that consumption of foods with a high ORAC score help protect against age related memory loss.<br />
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Chaga has the highest reported ORAC score in natural foods or oils. Chaga also has Polysaccharides, that other medicinal mushrooms contain, and Triterpenes only found elsewhere in Ganoderma.</p>
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<p>Top ORAC fruits and vegetables per 1gm</p>
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<p><b>Chaga&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</b>36,557 <br />
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Wolf Berries&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;258.1 <br />
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Prunes&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 58.9 <br />
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Pomegranates &nbsp; 33.7 <br />
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Raisins&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 28.9 <br />
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Blueberries&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 24.5 <br />
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Blackberries&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 20.8 <br />
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Kale&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;18 <br />
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Cranberries&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 17.9 <br />
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Garlic Clove&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 16.9 <br />
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Stwaberries&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 15.7 <br />
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Spinach&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 12.9 <br />
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Steamed Spinach &nbsp;9.3 <br />
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Broccoli Flowers &nbsp;9.1 <br />
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Beets&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 8.6 <br />
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Carrot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2</p>
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<p>&nbsp;</p>
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Latest revision as of 18:44, 18 December 2011

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